Determination of Coefficient of Static Friction of Agricultural Produce


     In order to design Agro-processing machine effectively, the study of the physical and mechanical properties of seed and grain is essential for optimal machine design, selection, and operation (Faleye, T. et al).      The coefficient of static friction is one of the important practical to be carried out if one needs the understanding of mechanical properties of any agricultural materials. The coefficient of static friction is defined as the friction overcome by any agricultural material before it starts to move or flow. During handling or processing produce move from one point to another in any handling or processing machines.      The basic idea is that before any material start to move it need to overcome some static friction holding it back or preventing it to move and this friction is called coefficient of static friction.

Reasons for the determination of these properties

  1. We need to determine this property basically if we want to design any processing or handling machine. For instance, we need to have idea of how materials move or flow on different surfaces like galvanized, wood, iron, stainless steel and glass. We need to know which of these surfaces is cheap and allow materials to flow well before we can design machines like maize and pepper grinder, silos etc.
  2. In a processing line where materials are transferred from one point to another, we need to know at what angle we shall tilt one part of the machine to and which surface will be best applicable.

Objective(s) of the Experiment

     This experiment is to help to understand and know the angle at which different agricultural material flow and also the surface that can be best used for various machine designs.

Equipments and Materials Needed

The equipments and materials needed for the oven drying method are listed below:

  1. An inclined plane with protractor
  2. The material in question
  3. An open ended cylindrical can
  4. Different surface eg wood, glass, iron plate, galvanized plate etc


  1. The open ended cylindrical can is filled with the agro materials and it then placed on the incline plane that has been set up. Precaution is taken to ensure that only the material in the can touches the surface on the plane, this is to ensure the accuracy of the experiment.
  2. The angle at which the material starts to move is then recorded for the surface used.
  3. Repeat the same procedure 2 times and record simultaneously.
  4. Remove the surface and place another surface and repeat same procedure.

Results and Calculations

      The coefficient of friction is calculated with the formula below:

Discussion and Conclusion

     Note that equation 4 can be re-adjusted to calculate for MCdb.


  1. Faleye T., Atere O. A., Oladipo O. N. and Agaja M. O. (2013). “Determination of Some Physical and Mechanical Properties of Some Cowpea Varieties”. African Journal of Agricultural Research Vol no. 8(49), pp 6485 – 6487
  2. Tiamiyu, W.M, Ajao, S., Sanusi, B. and Ukpabi G. (2017). “Determination of Physical Properties of Brown Beans”. Department of Agricultural Engineering, OAU. OAU, ife Nigeria.
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